Islam

 

 

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Islam's basic creed (shahadah) written on a plaque in the 
, China

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Islam

Beliefs
 

Allah · 

Oneness of God
Muhammad · 

Other prophets

Practices
 

Profession of faith · 

Prayer
Fasting · Charity · 

Pilgrimage

Texts and 

 

 

laws

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia · Kalam · 

Sufism

History and 

 

 

leadership

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Sunni · Shi'a
Rashidun caliphs · 

Shi'a imams

Culture and 

 

 

society

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children
Demographics · Festivals
Mosques · Philosophy
Science · Women
Politics · 

Dawah

 

 

 

Islam and other religions

 

Christianity · 

Judaism
Hinduism · Sikhism · 

Jainism

 

 

 

See also

 

Criticism · 

Islamophobia

Glossary of Islamic terms

Islam portal
v • d • 

 

 

e

For other meanings, including people named 'Islam', see 
Islam (disambiguation)
.

Islam (Arabicar-al_islam.ogg ???????; al-'isl?m ; pronounced [?s.?læ?m][note 1]) is amonotheisticAbrahamic religion originating with the teachings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. The wordIslam means "submission", or the total surrender of oneself to God (Arabic?????, All?h).[1] An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning "one who submits [to God]".[2][3] The word Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Isl?mis the infinitive. There are between 1 billion and 1.8 billion Muslims, making Islam the second-largest religion in the world, after Christianity.

 

[4]

Muslims believe that God revealed the Qur'an to Muhammad, God's final prophet, through the angel Gabriel, and regard the Qur'an and the Sunnah (words and deeds of Muhammad) as the fundamental sources of Islam.[5] They do not regard Muhammad as the founder of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original monotheistic faith of AbrahamMosesJesus, and other prophets. Islamic tradition holds that Jews and Christians distorted the revelations God gave to these prophets by either altering the text, introducing a false interpretation, or both.

 

[6]

Islam includes many religious practices. Adherents are generally required to observe the Five Pillars of Islam, which are five duties that unite Muslims into a community.[7] In addition to the Five Pillars, Islamic law (sharia) has developed a tradition of rulings that touch on virtually all aspects of life and society. This tradition encompasses everything from practical matters like dietary laws andbanking to warfare and welfare.[8] Almost all Muslims belong to one of two major denominations, the Sunni (85%) and Shi'a (15%). The schism developed in the late 7th century following disagreements over the religious and political leadership of the Muslim community. Islam is the predominant religion in much of Africa and theMiddle East, as well as in major parts of Asia.[9] Large communities are also found in China, the Balkan Peninsula in Eastern Europe and Russia. There are also large Muslim immigrant communities in other parts of the world, such as Western Europe. About 20% of Muslims live in Arab countries,[10] 30% in the Indian subcontinent and 15.6% in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country by population.

 

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Contents

 

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Etymology and meaning

Main article: 
 

The word Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m, and is derived from the Arabic verbAslama, which means "to accept, surrender or submit." Thus, Islam means acceptance of and submission to God, and believers must demonstrate this by worshipping him, following his commands, and avoidingpolytheism. The word is given a number of meanings in the Qur'an. In some verses (ayat), the quality of Islam as an internal conviction is stressed: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam."[12]Other verses connect isl?m and d?n (usually translated as "religion"): "Today, I have perfected your religion (d?n) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion."[13] Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God — more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.[14] Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of islam, im?n (faith), and ihs?n (excellence); where it represents acts of worship (`ib?dah) and Islamic law (sharia).

 

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Articles of faith

Main articles: Aqidah and 
 

The Qur'an states that all Muslims must believe in God, his revelations, his angels, his messengers, and in the "Day of Judgment".[16] Also, there are other beliefs that differ between particular sects. The Sunni concept of predestination is called divine decree,[17] while the Shi'a version is called divine justice. Unique to the Shi'a is the doctrine of Imamah, or the political and spiritual leadership of the Imams.

 

[18]

Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through the Islamic prophet Muhammad via the archangel Gabriel (Jibr?l). For them, Muhammad was God's final prophet and the Qur'an is the revelations he received over more than two decades.[19] In Islam, prophets are men selected by God to be his messengers. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic prophets are considered to be the closest to perfection of all humans, and are uniquely the recipients of divine revelation — either directly from God or through angels. The Qur'an mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including AdamNoahAbrahamMoses and Jesus, among others.[20] Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers since Adam preached the message of Islam — submission to the will of God. Islam is described in the Qur'an as "the primordial nature upon which God created mankind",[21] and the Qur'an states that the proper name Muslim was given by Abraham.

 

[22]

As a historical phenomenon, Islam originated in Arabia in the early 7th century.[23] Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as prophetic successor traditions to the teachings of Abraham. The Qur'an calls Jews andChristians "People of the Book" (ahl al-kit?b), and distinguishes them from polytheists. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted — either in interpretation, in text, or both.

 

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God

Main article: 
 
See also: Oneness of God (Islam) and 
Allah

Islam's fundamental theological concept is tawh?d — the belief that there is only one god. The Arabic term for God is All?h; most scholars believe it was derived from a contraction of the words al- (the) and ?il?h (deity, masculine form), meaning "the god" (al-il?h), but others trace its origin to the Aramaic Al?h?.[24] The first of the Five Pillars of Islam, tawh?d is expressed in the shahadah (testification), which declares that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is God's messenger. In traditional Islamic theology, God is beyond all comprehension; Muslims are not expected to visualize God but to worship and adore him as a protector. Although Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet, they reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, comparing it to polytheism. In Islamic theology, Jesus was just a man and not the son of God;[25] God is described in a chapter (sura) of the Qur'an as "…God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."

 

[26]

 

Qur'an

Main articles: Islamic holy books and 
 
See also: 
Origin and development of the Qur'an
 
 
The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by
 

Muslims consider the Qur'an to be the literal word of God; it is the central religious text of Islam.[27] Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the angel Gabriel on many occasions between 610 and his death on June 8, 632. The Qur'an was reportedly written down by Muhammad's companions (sahabah) while he was alive, although the prime method of transmission was orally. It was compiled in the time of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, and was standardized under the administration of Uthman, the third caliph. From textual evidence Islamic studies scholars find that the Qur'an of today has not changed significantly over the years.

 

[28]

The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 ?y?t, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[29] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[30] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.

 

[31]

The word Qur'an means "recitation". When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.

 

[32]

 

Angels

Main article: 
 

Belief in angels is crucial to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and worship God in perfect obedience.[33] Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man's behalf. The Qur'an describes angels as "messengers with wings — two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases…"

 

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Muhammad

Main article: 
 

Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) was an Arab religious, political, and military leader who founded the religion of Islam as a historical phenomenon. Muslims view him not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. In Muslim tradition, Muhammad is viewed as the last and the greatest in a series of prophets — as the man closest to perfection, the possessor of all virtues.[35] For the last 23 years of his life, beginning at age 40, Muhammad reported receiving revelations from God. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by hiscompanions.

 

[36]

 
 
The Masjid al-Nabawi("Mosque of the Prophet") in 
 is the site of Muhammad's tomb.

During this time, Muhammad preached to the people of Mecca, imploring them to abandon polytheism. Although some converted to Islam, Muhammad and his followers were persecuted by the leading Meccan authorities. After 13 years of preaching, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad established his political and religious authority. Within years, two battles had been fought against Meccan forces: the Battle of Badr in 624, which was a Muslim victory, and the Battle of Uhud in 625, which ended inconclusively. Conflict with Medinan Jewish clans who opposed the Muslims led to their exile, enslavement or death, and the Jewish enclave of Khaybar was subdued. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.[37] By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless Conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 he ruled over the Arabian peninsula.

 

[38]

In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. 820) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an.

 

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Resurrection and judgment

Main article: 
 

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", yawm al-Qiy?mah (also known as yawm ad-d?n, "Day of Judgment" andas-s?`a, "the Last Hour") is also crucial for Muslims. They believe that the time of Qiy?mah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiy?mah are described in the Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of Islamic scholars. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. It states that resurrection will be followed by the gathering of mankind, culminating in their judgment by God.

 

[40]

The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, usury and dishonesty. Muslims view paradise (jannah) as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to a greater joy — acceptance by God (ridw?n).[41]Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.

 

[42]

 

Predestination and free will

Main articles: Predestination in Islam and 
 

In accordance with the Sunni Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qad? wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'…"[43] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. In Islamic theology, divine preordainment does not suggest an absence of God's indignation against evil, because any evils that do occur are thought to result in future benefits men may not be able to see. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahf?z, the "Preserved Tablet".

 

[44]

The Shi'a understanding of free will is called "divine justice" (Adalah). This doctrine, originally developed by theMu'tazila, stresses the importance of man's responsibility for his own actions. In contrast, the Sunni deemphasize the role of individual free will in the context of God's creation and foreknowledge of all things.

 

[45]

 

Duties and practices

 

Five Pillars

Main article: 
 
 
 
Muslims performing
 (Islamic prayer)
 
 
Rituals of the Hajj(pilgrimage) include walking seven times around the 
 in Mecca.

The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: ????? ???????) are five practices essential to Sunni Islam. Shi'a Muslims subscribe to different sets of pillars which substantially overlap with the Five Pillars.

 

[46] They are:

 

Law

Main articles: Sharia and 
 

The Sharia (literally: "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship, which most Muslim groups adhere to. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".

 

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Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritancemarriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting,charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.

 

[54]

Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the 9th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Ris?lah.

 

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Religion and state

 
 
The role of religion based on the constitutions in predominantly Muslim countries

Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the ulema function as both jurists and theologians. In practice, Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control. As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals, Muslim societies responded in different ways. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolutionreplaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Khomeini.

 

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Etiquette and diet

Main articles: Adab (behavior) and 
 

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health, such as the circumcision of male offspringIslamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims, like Jews, are restricted in their diet, and prohibited foods include pig products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halalfood.

 

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Jihad

Main articles: Jihad and 
 

Jihad means "to strive or struggle" (in the way of God) and is considered the "Sixth Pillar of Islam" by a minority of Sunni Muslim authorities.[58] Jihad, in its broadest sense, is classically defined as "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation." Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the devil, and aspects of one's own self, different categories of Jihad are defined.[59]Jihad when used without any qualifier is understood in its military aspect.[60][61] Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.[62] Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a andSufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.

 

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Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants in the defense or expansion of the Islamic state, the ultimate purpose of which is to universalize Islam. Jihad, the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law, may be declared against apostates, rebels, highway robbers, violent groups, non-Islamic leaders or states which refuse to submit to the authority of Islam.[64][65] Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare: the external Jihad includes a struggle to make the Islamic societies conform to the Islamic norms of justice.

 

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Under most circumstances and for most Muslims, jihad is a collective duty (fard kifaya): its performance by some individuals exempts the others. Only for those vested with authority, especially the sovereign (imam), does jihad become an individual duty. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[65] For most Shiasoffensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's[67] occultation in 868 AD.

 

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History

Main articles: Muslim history and 
 

Islam's historical development resulted in major political, economic, and military effects inside and outside theIslamic world. Within a century of Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an, an Islamic empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. This new polity soon broke into civil war, and successor states fought each other and outside forces. However, Islam continued to spread into regions likeAfrica, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. The Islamic civilization was one of the most advanced in the world during the Middle Ages, but was surpassed by Europe with the economic and military growth of the West. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Islamic dynasties such as the Ottomans and Mughals fell under the sway of European imperial powers. In the 20th century new religious and political movements and newfound wealth in the Islamic world led to both rebirth and conflict.

 

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Rise of the caliphate and Islamic civil war (632–750)

Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companionof Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".

 

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The territory of the 
 in 750

His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as al-khulaf?' ar-r?shid?n ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories.

 

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When Umar was assassinated in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After fighting off opposition in the first civil war (the "First Fitna"), Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Following this, Mu'awiyah, who held the governorship of the Levant at the time, seized power and began the Umayyad dynasty.

 

[72]

These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the three rulers prior to Ali, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that Ali was the only rightful successor; they became known as the Shi'a.[73] After Mu'awiyah's death in 680, conflict over succession broke out again in a civil war known as the "Second Fitna". Afterward, the Umayyad dynasty prevailed for seventy years, and was able to conquer the Maghrib and Al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula, former Visigothic Hispania) and the Narbonnese Gaul in the west as well as expand Muslim territory into Sindh and the fringes of Central Asia.[74] While the Muslim-Arab elite engaged in conquest, some devout Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life, emphasizing, rather, poverty, humility, and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Devout Muslim ascetic exemplars such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Sufism.

 

[75]

For the Umayyad aristocracy, Islam was viewed as a religion for Arabs only;[76] the economy of the Umayyad empire was based on the assumption that a majority of non-Muslims (Dhimmis) would pay taxes to the minority of Muslim Arabs. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. Even after conversion, these new Muslims (mawali) did not achieve social and economic equality with the Arabs. The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented mawali, poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of their propagandist and general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.[77] Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished in the "Islamic Golden Age", with its capital at the cosmopolitan city of Baghdad.

 

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Golden Age (750–1258)

Main article: 
 

By the late 9th century, the Abbasid caliphate began to fracture as various regions gained increasing levels of autonomy. Across North Africa, Persia, and Central Asia emirates formed as provinces broke away. The monolithic Arab empire gave way to a more religiously homogenized Muslim world where the Shia Fatimidscontested even the religious authority of the caliphate. By 1055 the Seljuq Turks had eliminated the Abbasids as a military power, nevertheless they continued to respect the caliph's titular authority.[79] During this time expansion of the Muslim world continued, by both conquest and peaceful proselytism even as both Islam and Muslim trade networks were extending into sub-Saharan West AfricaCentral AsiaVolga Bulgaria and theMalay archipelago.

 

[2]

The Golden Age saw new legal, philosophical, and religious developments. The major hadith collections were compiled and the four modern Sunni Madh'habs were established. Islamic law was advanced greatly by the efforts of the early 9th century jurist al-Shafi'i; he codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith, a topic which had been a locus of dispute among Islamic scholars.[80] Philosophers Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Al-Farabisought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like the 11th century theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali argued against them and ultimately prevailed.[81] Finally, Sufism and Shi'ism both underwent major changes in the 9th century. Sufism became a full-fledged movement that had moved towards mysticism and away from its ascetic roots, while Shi'ism split due to disagreements over the succession of Imams.

 

[82]

The spread of the Islamic dominion induced hostility among medieval ecclesiastical Christian authors who saw Islam as an adversary in the light of the large numbers of new Muslim converts. This opposition resulted in polemical treatises which depicted Islam as the religion of the antichrist and of Muslims as libidinous and subhuman.[83] In the medieval period, a few Arab philosophers like the poet Al-Ma'arri adopted a critical approach to Islam, and the Jewish philosopher Maimonides contrasted Islamic views of morality to Jewish views that he himself elaborated.

 

[84]

 

Crusades, Reconquista and Mongol invasion

Main articles: Crusades and 
 
 
 
Artistic depiction of the Battle of Hattin in 1187, where Jerusalem was recaptured by Saladin's Ayyubid forces

Starting in the 9th century, Muslim conquests in the West began to be reversed. The Reconquista was launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, and Muslim Italian possessions were lost to the Normans. From the 11th century onwards alliances of European Christian kingdoms mobilized to launch a series of wars known as theCrusades, bringing the Muslim world into conflict with Christendom. Initially successful in their goal of taking the Holy land, and establishing the Crusader states, Crusader gains in the Holy Land were later reversed by subsequent Muslim generals such as Saladin; who recaptured Jerusalem during the Second Crusade.[85] In the east the Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty at the Battle of Baghdad in 1258, as they overran the Muslim lands in a series of invasions. Meanwhile in Egypt, the slave-soldier Mamluks took control in an uprising in 1250[86] and in alliance with the Golden Horde halted the Mongol armies at the Battle of Ain Jalut. But Mongol rule extended across the breadth of almost all Muslim lands in Asia and Islam was temporarily replaced by Buddhism as the official religion of the land. Over the next century the Mongol Khanates converted to Islam and this religious and cultural absorption ushered in a new age of Mongol-Islamic synthesis that shaped the further spread of Islam in central Asia and the 

Indian subcontinent

.

The Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world in the mid-14th century.[87] It is probable that the Mongolsand merchant caravans making use of the opportunities of free passage offered by the Pax Mongolicainadvertently brought the plague from Central Asia to the Middle East and Europe.[88] Plague epidemics kept returning to the Islamic world up to the 19th century.

 

[89]

 

Turkish, Iranian and Indian empires (1030–1918)

The Seljuk Turks conquered Abbassid lands and adopted Islam and become the de facto rulers of the caliphate. They captured Anatolia by defeating the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, thereby precipitating the call for Crusades. They however fell apart rapidly in the second half of the 12th century giving rise to various semi-autonomous Turkic dynasties. In the 13th and 14th centuries the Ottoman empire (named after Osman I) emerged from among these "Ghazi emirates" and established itself after a string of conquests that included theBalkans, parts of Greece, and western Anatolia. In 1453 under Mehmed II the Ottomans laid siege toConstantinople, the capital of Byzantium, which succumbed shortly thereafter, having been overwhelmed by a far greater number of Ottoman troops and to a lesser extent, cannonry.

 

[90]

Beginning in the 13th century, Sufism underwent a transformation, largely as a result of the efforts of al-Ghazzali to legitimize and reorganize the movement. He developed the model of the Sufi order — a community of spiritual teachers and students.[91] Also of importance to Sufism was the creation of the Masnavi, a collection of mystical poetry by the 13th century Persian poet Rumi. The Masnavi had a profound influence on the development of Sufi religious thought; to many Sufis it is second in importance only to the Qur'an.

 

[92]

 
 
The Taj Mahal is amausoleum located inAgra, India, that was built under Mughal rule
 

In the early 16th century, the Shi'i 

Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia and established Shi'a Islam as an official religion there, and despite periodic setbacks, the Safavids remained powerful for two centuries. Meanwhile, Mamluk Egypt fell to the Ottomans in 1517, who then launched a European campaign which reached as far as the gates of Vienna in 1529.[94] After the invasion of Persia, and sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, Delhi became the most important cultural centre of the Muslim east.[95] Many Islamic dynasties ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent starting from the 12th century. The prominent ones include the Delhi Sultanate(1206–1526) and the Mughal empire (1526–1857). These empires helped in the spread of Islam in South Asia, but by the early-18th century the Maratha empire became the pre-eminent power in the north of India. By the mid-18th century the British empire had formally ended the Mughal dynasty,[96], and at the end of the 18th century overthrew the Muslim-ruled Kingdom of Mysore. In the 18th century the Wahhabi movement took hold in Saudi Arabia. Founded by the preacher Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Wahhabism is a fundamentalist ideology that condemns practices like Sufism and the veneration of saints as un-Islamic.

 

[97]

By the 17th and 18th centuries, despite attempts at modernization, the Ottoman empire had begun to feel threatened by European economic and military advantages. In the 19th century, the rise of nationalism resulted in Greece declaring and winning independence in 1829, with several Balkan states following suit after the Ottomans suffered defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The Ottoman era came to a close at the end of World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924.[98]

[99]

 

In the 19th century, the 

SalafiDeobandi and 

Barelwi

 movements were initiated.

 

Modern times (1918–present)

By the early years of the 20th century, most of the Muslim world outside the Ottoman empire had been absorbed into the empires of non-Islamic European powers. After World War I losses, nearly all of the Ottoman empire was also parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. In the course of the 20th century, most of these European-ruled territories became independent, and new issues such as oil wealth and relations with the State of Israel have assumed prominence.[100] During this time, many Muslims migrated, as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.[101] Additionally, the resulting urbanization and increase in trade in Africabrought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith. As a result, Islam in sub-Saharan Africa likely doubled between 1869 and 1914.[102] The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), consisting of Muslim countries, was formally established in September 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque inJerusalem.

 

[103]

The 20th century saw the creation of many new Islamic "revivalist" movements. Groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan advocate a totalistic and theocratic alternative to secular political ideologies. Sometimes called Islamist, they see Western cultural values as a threat, and promote Islam as a comprehensive solution to every public and private question of importance. In countries like Iran and Afghanistan (under the Taliban), revolutionary movements replaced secular regimes with Islamist states, while transnational groups like Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda engage in terrorism to further their goals. In contrast,Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".

 

[104]

Modern critique of Islam includes accusations that Islam is intolerant of criticism and that Islamic law is too hard on apostates. Critics like Ibn Warraq question the morality of the Qu'ran, saying that its contents justify the mistreatment of women and encourage antisemitic remarks by Muslim theologians.[105] Such claims are disputed by Muslim writers like Fazlur Rahman Malik,[106] Syed Ameer Ali,[107] Ahmed Deedat,[108] andYusuf Estes.[109] Others like Daniel Pipes and Martin Kramer focus more on criticizing the spread of Islamic fundamentalism, a danger they feel has been ignored.[110] Montgomery Watt and Norman Daniel dismiss many of the criticisms as the product of old myths and polemics.[111] The rise of Islamophobia, according to Carl Ernst, had contributed to the negative views about Islam and Muslims in the West.

 

[112]

Pascal Bruckner and Paul Berman on the other hand have entered the "Islam in Europe" debate. Berman identifies a "reactionary turn in the intellectual world" represented by Western scholars who idealize Islam.[113]

 

Community

Main article: 
 

 

Demographics

See also: Islam by country and 
Demographics of Islam
 
 
Muslim percentage of population by country

Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population in 2007 range from 1 billion to 1.8 billion. Approximately 85% are Sunni and 15% are Shi'a, with a small minority belonging to other sects. Some 30–40 countries areMuslim-majority, and Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide. South Asia and Southeast Asiacontain the most populous Muslim countries, with IndonesiaIndiaPakistan, and Bangladesh having more than 100 million adherents each.[114] According to U.S. government figures, in 2006 there were 20 million Muslims in China.[115] In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in AfricaEgypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.[114] Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries.

 

[116]

 

Mosques

Main article: 
 

A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name, masjid. The word mosquein English refers to all types of buildings dedicated to Islamic worship, although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller, privately owned mosque and the larger, "collective" mosque (masjid j?mi`). Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.

 

[117]

 

Family life

See also: 
Women and Islam

The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Qur'an, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. The woman's share of inheritance is generally half of that of a man with the same rights of succession.[118] Marriage in Islam is a civilcontract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.

 

[119]

 
 
Canterbury Mosque in Christchurch, New Zealand was built during 1984-1985.
 

A man may have up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may have only one husband. In most Muslim countries, the process of divorce in Islam is known as talaq, which the husband initiates by pronouncing the word "divorce".[121] Scholars disagree whether Islamic holy texts justify traditional Islamic practices such as veiling and seclusion (purdah). Starting in the 20th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy, with varying success. At the same time, many Muslim women have attempted to reconcile tradition with modernity by combining an active life with outward modesty. Certain Islamist groups like the Taliban have sought to continue traditional law as applied to women.

 

[122]

 

Calendar

Main article: 
 

The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. The assignment of this year as the year 1 AH (Anno Hegirae) in the Islamic calendar was reportedly made by Caliph Umar. It is a lunar calendar, with nineteen ordinary years of 354 days and eleven leap years of 355 days in a thirty-year cycle. Islamic dates cannot be converted to CE/AD dates simply by adding 622 years: allowance must also be made for the fact that each Hijri century corresponds to only 97 years in the Christian calendar.

 

[123]

 

The year 1428 AH coincides almost completely with 2007 CE.

 

Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: ??? ?????) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (Arabic: ??? ??????) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the pilgrimage to Mecca.

 

[124]

 

Other religions

Main articles: Islam and other religions and 
 
 
 
A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in both Islam and 
 that has been a source of controversy
 
 
The 
congregation building. Muslims believe that Muhammad ascended to heaven on this site.

According to Islamic doctrine, Islam was the primordial religion of mankind, professed by Adam.[125] At some point, a religious split occurred, and God began sending prophets to bring his revelations to the people.[126] In this view, AbrahamMosesHebrew prophets, and Jesus were all Prophets in Islam, but their message and the texts of the Torah and the Gospels were corrupted by Jews and Christians. Similarly, children of non-Muslim families are born Muslims, but are converted to another faith by their parents.[127] The idea of Islamic supremacy is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."[128] Pursuant to this principle, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslim men, defamation of Islam is prohibited, and the testimony of a non-Muslim is inadmissible against a Muslim.

 

[129]

Islamic law divides non-Muslims into several categories, depending on their relation with the Islamic state. Christians and Jews who live under Islamic rule are known as dhimmis ("protected peoples"). According to this pact, the personal safety and security of property of the dhimmis were guaranteed in return for paying tribute (jizya) to the Islamic state and acknowledging Muslim supremacy. Historically, dhimmis enjoyed a measure of communal autonomy under their own religious leaders, but were subject to legal, social and religious restrictions meant to highlight their inferiority.[130] The status was extended to other groups like Zoroastrians and Hindus[131], but not to atheists or agnostics.[132] Those who live in non-Muslim lands (dar al-harb) are known as harbis, and upon entering into an alliance with the Muslim state become known as ahl al-ahd. Those who receive a guarantee of safety while residing temporarily in Muslim lands are known as ahl al-am?n. Their legal position is similar to that of the dhimmi except that they are not required to pay the jizya. The people of armistice (ahl al-hudna) are those who live outside of Muslim territory and agree to refrain from attacking the Muslims.[133][134] Apostasy is prohibited, and is punishable by death.[135]

[136]

 

The 

AleviYazidiDruzeAhmadiyyaBábíBahá'íBerghouata and Ha-Mim movements either emerged out of Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam. Some consider themselves separate while others still sects of Islam though controversial in certain beliefs with mainstream Muslims. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late 15th century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam and Hinduism.

 

[137]

 

Denominations

Main article: 
 
 
 
Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe.

Islam consists of a number of religious denominations that are essentially similar in belief but which have significant theological and legal differences. The primary division is between the Sunni and the Shi'a, with Sufismgenerally considered to be a mystical inflection of Islam rather than a distinct school. According to most sources, approximately 85% of the world's Muslims are Sunni and approximately 15% are Shi'a, with a small minority who are members of other Islamic sects.

 

[138]

 

Sunni

Main article: 
 

Sunni Muslims are the largest group in Islam. In Arabic, as-Sunnah literally means "principle" or "path". The Sunnah (the example of Muhammad's life) as recorded in the Qur'an and the hadith is the main pillar of Sunni doctrine. Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him, those leaders had to be elected. Sunnis recognize four major legal traditions, or madhhabsHanafiMalikiShafi'i, and Hanbali. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim might choose any one that he or she finds agreeable, but other Islamic sects are believed to have departed from the majority by introducing innovations (bidah). There are also several orthodox theological or philosophical traditions within Sunnism. For example, the recent Salafi movement sees itself as restorationist and claims to derive its teachings from the original sources of Islam.

 

[139]

 

Shi'a

Main article: 
 
See also: 
Succession to Muhammad

The Shi'a, who constitute the second-largest branch of Islam, believe in the political and religious leadership ofImams from the progeny of Ali ibn Abi Talib, who according to most Shi'a are in a state of ismah, meaning infallibility. They believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, as the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, was his rightful successor, and they call him the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs. To most Shi'a, an Imam rules by right of divine appointment and holds "absolute spiritual authority" among Muslims, having final say in matters of doctrine and revelation.[140][141] Shi'a Islam has several branches, the largest of which is the Twelvers (i?n??ašariyya) which the label Shi'a generally refers to. Although the Twelver Shi'a share many core practices with the Sunni, the two branches disagree over the proper importance and validity of specific collections of hadith. The Twelver Shi'a follow a legal tradition called Ja'fari jurisprudence.[142] Other smaller groups include the Ismaili and Zaidi, who differ from Twelvers in both their line of successors and theological beliefs.

 

[143]

 

Sufism

Main article: 
 

Not strictly a denomination, Sufism is a mystical-ascetic form of Islam. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[144] Sufism and Islamic law are usually considered to be complementary, although Sufism has been criticized by some Muslims for being an unjustified religious innovation. Most Sufi orders, or tariqas, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a.

 

[145]

 

Others

The Kharijites are a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites is Ibadism. Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. The Imamateis an important topic in Ibadi legal literature, which stipulates that the leader should be chosen solely on the basis of his knowledge and piety, and is to be deposed if he acts unjustly. Most Ibadi Muslims live in Oman.

 

[146]

 

See also

Further information: 
Category:Islam

 

References

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    • Holt (1977a), p.263
    • Lapidus (2002), p.250
    • "Istanbul". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  91. ^ Esposito (2004), pp.104,105
  92. ^ "Islamic Art". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  93. ^ Esposito (2004), p.65
  94. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.198,234,244,245,254
    • L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
  95. ^ Ikram, S. M. 1964. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press
  96. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.358,378–380,624
  97. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.572
    • Watt (1973), p.18: Wahhabism should not be confused with the early Kharijite sect of Wahabiyya, which was named after Abd-Allah ibn-Wahb ar-Rasibi, who opposed Ali at Nahrawan.
  98. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.380,489–493
  99. ^ [4] New Turkey
  100. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp.281–282,380,489–493,556,578,823,835
  101. ^ Muslim Minorities in the West: Visible and Invisible By Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Jane I. Smith, pg 271
  102. ^ Bulliet, Richard, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth and Its Peoples. 3. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. ISBN 0618427708
  103. ^ Organization of the Islamic Conference
  104. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004), pp.118,119,179
    • Lapidus (2002), pp.823–830
  105. ^ See:
  106. ^ For example see Major Themes of the Qur'an by Fazlur Rahman Malik in which he argues against the treatment of the Qur'an as either a piecemeal or an evolutionary progression of ideas. See review by William A. Graham (1983), p.446.
  107. ^ For example see The Spirit of Islam by Syed Ameer Ali (1849-1928). It is described by David Samuel Margoliouth (1905) as "probably the best achievement in the way of an apology for Mohammed". See Margoliouth, preface Mohammed and the Rise of Islam.
  108. ^ Westerlund (2003)
  109. ^ Elizabeth Omara-Otunnu (17 November 2003). "Ramadan Awareness Event Designed To Debunk Negative Images". Advance, University of Connecticut.http://advance.uconn.edu/2003/031117/03111715.htm.
  110. ^ Bernstein, Richard. "Experts on Islam Pointing Fingers At One Another"The New York Times.http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/article?res=F70D16F734540C708CDDA80994D9404482. Retrieved on 14 May 2007.
  111. ^ See:
    • Seibert (1994), pp.88–89
    • Watt (1974), p.231
  112. ^ Ernst (2004), p.11
  113. ^ Berman, Paul (4 June 2007). "Who's Afraid of Tariq Ramadan?: The Islamist, the journalist, and the defense of liberalism.". The New Republichttp://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=fd52e6a4-efc5-42fd-983b-1282a16ac8dd.
  114. a b "Number of Muslim by country". nationmaster.com.http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/rel_isl_num_of_mus-religion-islam-number-of-muslim. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  115. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2006—China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)". U.S. department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2006.http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  116. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2004) pp.2,43
    • "Islamic World". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
    "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com.http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  117. ^ See:
    • J. Pedersen; R. Hillenbrand, J. Burton-Page, et al.. "Masdjid". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
    • "Mosque". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  118. ^ "al-Mar'a". Encyclopaedia of Islam
  119. ^
    • Waines (2003) pp. 93–96
    •  
    • The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2003), p.339
    • Esposito (1998) p. 79
  120. ^ Drury, Abdullah. "A time for Muslims to examine faith." Stuff.co.nz. Tuesday 5 August 2008.
  121. ^ *"Talak". Encyclopaedia of Islam
  122. ^
    • Esposito (2004), pp.95,96,235–241
    •  
    • Harald Motzki. "Marriage and Divorce". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an.
    • Lori Peek. "Marriage Practices". Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures.
  123. ^ See:
    • Adil (2002), p.288
    • F. E. Peters (2003), p.67
    • B. van Dalen; R. S. Humphreys, Manuela Marín, et al.. "Tarikh?". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
  124. ^ Ghamidi (2001): Customs and Behavioral Laws
  125. ^ Friedmann (2003), pp. 14–16
  126. ^ Friedmann (2003), pp. 18–19
  127. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 18
  128. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 35
  129. ^ See:
    • Friedmann (2003), p. 35;
    • Lewis (1984), p. 39
  130. ^ See:
    • Lewis (1984), pp.9, 27, 36;
    • Friedmann (2003), p. 37;
  131. ^ Ernst (2005), Following Muhammad, p.46
  132. ^ Lewis (2001), p.273
  133. ^ Friedmann (2003), p. 55
  134. ^ "Aman", Encyclopaedia of Islam
  135. ^ A woman who apostasizes is to be executed according to some jurists, or imprisoned according to others.
  136. ^ "Murtadd", Encyclopedia of Islam
  137. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, "Sikhs"
  138. ^ See:
  139. ^ See:
    • Esposito (2003), pp.275,306
    • "Shariah". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
    • "Sunnite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  140. ^ See
    • Lapidus (2002), p.46
    • "Imam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
    • "Shi'ite". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  141. ^ Imamat, by Naser Makarem Shirazi
  142. ^ See:
    • Ahmed (1999), pp.44–45
    • Nasr (1994), p.466
  143. ^ See:
  144. ^ Trimingham (1998), p.1
  145. ^ See:
  146. ^ See:

 

Notes

  1. ^ There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is pronounced /z/ or /s/, and whether the a is pronounced as in father, as in cat, or when the stress is on the i as in the a of sofa (Merriam Webster). The most common are IPA/??zl?m/, /??sl?m/, /?z?l??m/, /?s?l??m/ (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and IPA/??zl??m/, /??sl??m/(American Heritage Dictionary).

 

Books and journals

 

Encyclopedias

  • William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, ed (2005). Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. Berkshire Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0974309101.
  • Gabriel Oussani, ed (1910). Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Paul Lagasse, Lora Goldman, Archie Hobson, Susan R. Norton, ed (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia(6th ed.). Gale Group. ISBN 978-1593392369.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc..
  • Erwin Fahlbusch, William Geoffrey Bromiley, ed (2001). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Eerdmans Publishing Company, and Brill. ISBN 0-8028-2414-5.
  • John Bowden, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of Christianity (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-522393-4.
  • George Thomas Kurian, Graham T. T. Molitor, ed (1995). Encyclopedia of the Future. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028972053.
  • P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, ed. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  • Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, ed (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028656038.
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Brill Academic Publishers.
  • Lindsay Jones, ed (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657332.
  • Salamone Frank, ed (2004). Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals (1st ed.). Routledge.ISBN 978-0415941808.
  • Peter N. Stearns, ed (2000). The Encyclopedia of World History Online (6th ed.). Bartleby.
  • Josef W. Meri, ed (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. RoutledgeISBN 041-5966906.
  • Wendy Doniger, ed (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster.ISBN 087-7790442.
  • Glasse Cyril, ed (2003). New Encyclopedia of Islam: A Revised Edition of the Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. ISSN 978-0759101906.
  • Edward Craig, ed (1998). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1st ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415073103.

 

Further reading

 

External links

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